Europe is a unique continent, which is not surrounded by water from all directions, and has an overland border with the neighbouring Asia. Physiographically, it occupies the northwestern part of the large landmass known as Eurasia and surrounded from the north by the Arctic Ocean, from the west by the Atlantic Ocean, from the south by the Mediterranean Sea, and from the southeast by the Black Sea.
Definition of correct border between two continents was a big question for geographers and politicians. Nowadays it is commonly delineated by the Ural Mountains in Russia, the Caspian Sea and Caucasus Mountains.
Totally now Europe includes 51 independent states. Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey are transcontinental countries, partially located in both Europe and Asia. Armenia and Cyprus politically are considered European countries, though geographically they are located in the West Asia territory.
Europe’s largest country is Russia (37% of total continent area) and the smallest one is Vatican City, which occupies only a small area in the center of Rome.
The most visited travel destination in this region is France with its capital Paris as the best place of interest, followed by Spain, Italy, United Kingdom and Germany. (Source)
Alphabetical list of countries in Europe (click on country below to view historical events):